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中国红十字奇迹

       zhongguohongshizihuiyu1904nian3yue10ri(qingguangxusanshinianzhengyueershisi)zaishanghaijianli,zhijinyizouguo110nianderongzhangguocheng。

       zhongguohongshizihuishizhonghuaguomingongheguotongyidehongshizigouzao,shichuzhirenxingzhuyishimingdeshehuibushixiaowo。zhongguohongshizihuiyichanyangrenxingzhuyijingshen,yanhurendexingmingheankang,zengjinrenleizhanyiqianjinqijiweizhuzhi;yigailiangzuiyishouqinhaiquntijingkuangweishimingfangzhen;fuzuodangjuzilizilidizhengkaiyubenshenzhizeyouguandeshiming。

       yi、zhongguohongshizihuidejiangshengjihanqingyange

       zhongguohongshizihuidejiangsheng,jubeishenzhidewenhuahanqinggenben。yishidongfanghongshizide“renxing”linianchuanruzhongguohouhezhongguochuantongde“renai”siweiheshi,weizhongguohongshizihuidejiangshenggongjilesiweigenben;erzheitianezhanyijifadejiuhugoudangcuishenglezhongguohongshizihui。

       guojihongshizigoudangjiangshenghou,qishouyu19shiji80nianyuechuandaowoguotaiwan。1894nianjiawuhaizhanhou,qitouzaizhongguodaluchuanbu。dongfanghongshizide“renxing”linianhezhongguoboaiairen、jishanjishandechuantongpindesiweishututonggui,yijingchuanbu,henkuaiqudeshehuirentong,shiguorenmanmanshuxidaohongshizihuideshouyaoxing,weizhongguohongshizihuidejiangshengdianjileshehuigenben。

       1904nian2yue(qingguangxusanshinian),zaiwoguoxinanlvshunkou,rieliangbianweizhengquzaizhongguodetequan,bengfaleriezhanyi,shushiwanzhongguotongbaochuyushuishenchiredangzhong。neishi,zailvshundebenguowaiqiaodouyoubenguodangjuhuohongshizihuichutoujuming,jieyunchetuizhanqu。banbubanfazhonglideqingdangjuyepaichuanjieyunzhongguotongbao,zaodaoeguodexiejue,chuanzhibuzhunrugang。weijiuhuzhongguozaili,shanghaihaiguandaoshendunhedengrenchuyuyifen,changyijianli“dongsanshenghongshizipujishanhui”,zheishizhongguozuizaodehehongshiziyouguandegouzao。

       weiqudeguojishangderenke,1904nian3yue10ri,qingdaishangyuedachen、gongbushangshulvhaihuanhegongbuzuoshilangshengxuanhuaidengrenzaishanghaiyueqingzhonglideying、mei、fa、dedaibiao,peihexieshangjianlile“wanguohongshizihuishanghaizhihui”。xishiqudehongshiziguojiweiyuanhuiderenke。qingdangjudexihou,dangjiyuyirenke,bingbobaiyin10wanliangzuojingfei(gedishenshangjiyamenyequanmu20wanliangbaiyin),zheishizhongguohongshizihuideqianshen。riezhanyijunshihou,“wanguohongshizihuishanghaizhihui”suizhibimu,zhongguorenqitouzibanhongshizihui,1910nianqingtingluyongshengxuanhuaiweizhongguohongshizihuihuizhang,zhengshiqiyong“daqinghongshizihui”guanfang。

      1911nian,xinhaifandongbengfa,qingdaishuaiwang,zhonghuaminguojianli。daqinghongshizihuigengmingweizhongguohongshizihui。1912nian1yue,qudehongshiziguojiweiyuanhuidezhengshirenke。1919nian7yue,chashouhongshizihuixiehui。1933nian,gengmingweizhonghuaminguohongshizihui。qianhoucongshujiaojibu、junweihuihexingzhengyuan。

       1950nian8yue2ri,zaibeijingzhaokaizhongguohongshizihuixieshanggaixuanjihui(shijishangweixinzhongguohongshizihuidiyicitianxiadaibiaodahui),jingyouguochenglezhongguohongshizihuigaixuanshiwu。jihuimingbaihuading,zhongguohongshizihuiwei“zhongjianguomindangjudailingxiadeguominweishengjiuhuxiaowo”,mingmingwei“zhongguohongshizihui”。zhouenlaizongliqinshenheyuelegaixuanbaogao,bingqinbidiancuanle《zhongguohongshizihuizhangcheng》。cicigaixuan,weixinzhongguohongshiziqijidechengzhangdianjilegenben。

      1961nian10yue,zhongguohongshizihuidiercitianxiadaibiaodahuizaibeijingzhaokai。

      1966nian,“wenhuadafandong”qitou,fangcaiqibudezhongguohongshizihuibeijizuosichaoguanyi“fengzixiu”demaozierzaodaopiping,gejihongshizigouzaojigoubeicaiche,zonghuidajubushimingzhiyuandiaolihuobeixiafangdaoganxiao,guojishimingziyuangeqianda10nianzhijiu。

      1978nian,dingxinkaifangzhichu,guowuyuanyi63haowenjianhezhunzhongguohongshizihuiguifuguojishiming,zhongguohongshizihuigejigouzaojiezhongguifu,manmanzhengkaigexiangshiming,qitouzoushangchengzhangzhuangdadeluzi。

      1979nian2yue,zhongguohongshizihuidisancitianxiahuiyuandaibiaodahuizaibeijingzhaokai。

      1985nian5yue,zhongguohongshizihuidisicitianxiahuiyuandaibiaodahuizaibeijingzhaokai。

      1990nian2yue,zhongguohongshizihuidiwucitianxiahuiyuandaibiaodahuizaibeijingzhaokai。

      1993nian10yue31ri,zaigefangmianjinlixia,dibajietianxiarendachangweihuidisicijihuijingyouguochengle《zhonghuaguomingongheguohongshizihuifa》,yiguoduzhuxilingfabushixing。guoduyifazedeqingshiduihongshizihuishimingzuolebiaozhun,jinhou,zhongguohongshizihuizoushangyifajianhuideguidao。

      1994nian4yue,zhongguohongshizihuidiliucitianxiahuiyuandaibiaodahuizaibeijingzhaokai,tianxiazhengxiefuzhuxiqianzhengyingbeixuan weihuizhang,guoduzhuxijiangzeminshoupinweizhongguohongshizihuimingwanghuizhang。

       1999nian10yue,zhongguohongshizihuidiqicitianxiahuiyuandaibiaodahuizaibeijingzhaokai。tianxiarendachangweihuifuweiyuanzhangpengpeiyunbeixuanweizhongguohongshizihuihuizhang,guoduzhuxijiangzeminchixushoupinweizhongguohongshizihuimingwanghuizhang。

       1999nian12yue29ri,zhongjianjigoutiliweiyuanhuibangongshigaosu,“jingbaoqingzhongjianbianweidailinghezhun,jiangzhongguohongshizihuizonghuiyou‘weishengbudaiguan’gaiyouguowuyuandailingjieqia”,lishunlezonghuidecaochitixitili,tongshiyewulidibiancelechusuohongshizihuilishuncaochitixitilideshiming。

       2004nian,zhongguohongshizihuijianhui100zhounian。10yue,zhongguohongshizihuidibacitianxiahuiyuandaibiaodahuizaibeijingzhaokai。pengpeiyunchixubeixuanweihuizhang,guoduzhuxihujintaoshoupinweimingwanghuizhang。2009nian10yue,zhongguohongshizihuidijiucitianxiahuiyuandaibiaodahuizaibeijingzhaokai,guoduzhuxihujintaochixushoupindandangmingwanghuizhang。tianxiarendachangweihuifuweiyuanzhanghuajianminbeixuanweihuizhang。bennianjiangzhaokaidishicitianxiahuiyuandaibiaodahui。

       aiyouxiappjianliyu1924nian9yue,1937nian11yuegengmingweizhongguohongshizihuihangzhouguojifenhui,1948niangengmingweizhongguohongshizihuihangzhoufenhui,1956nian5yue,gengmingweiaiyouxiapp,2003nian1yue,shihongshizihuiyoushiweishengjudaiguangaiyoushidangjudailingjieqia,lishunlecaochitixitili。

       er、bainianlaiderenxingshiming

       zhongguohongshizihuijianlibaiyunianlaisuochuzhiderenxingshimingkeguinazongheweisangefangmian:yishizhanyizhongderenxingshiming;ershizhanyishidaiderenxingshiming;sanshichugeshiwuzhongderenxingshiming。

      (yi)zhanyizhongderenxingshiming

       zhongguohongshizihuiheguojihongshizigoudangyiyang,yeshifayuanyujiangchangjiuhu,bingzaijiangchangjiuhuzhongchengzhangzhuangdaqilaide。jiangshengyu1904niandezhongguohongshizihui,chuduiriezhanyizhongbaoshouzhanluanzhikudexinantongbaoezhijiushang、jiunan、jiuzai,haizaibeifa、kangrihekangmeiyuanchaodengzhanyizhongzhengkailibushengrenderenxingbushishiming。

       1、beifazhanyi

       1911nian,xinhaifandongbengfahou,daqinghongshizihuigengmingweizhongguohongshizihui,sheguqiebingyuanyuwuhan,binggouzaosanzhiyiliaoduizaisonghujinanjingzhanyizhongchuzhijiangchangjiuhushiming。erhouduonian,guojizhanluandieqi,geshengfenyunjianlihongshizihui,xietongcaochibingzaibushishiming。1926nian,beifazhanyiqitou,shezaishanghaidezonghuibanshichuyougouzaojiuhuduidaochangjiuhushiming,bingzaishanghaigebingyuanshouliushangbing。cong1911niandao1930niande20nianjian,youhongshizihuichutoujuminggouzaodeyiliaojiuhujigoujiuhudeshangbingyuanzongshuzaibaiwanrenyishang,bushizailideshumuzegengduo。

       2、kangrizhanyi

       1931nian,ribencedongleduiwoguoxinandiyudeqinfanzhanyi。zhongguohongshizihuideshouyaoshimingshizhengkaizhandijiuhuhezhanquzailidejiuzhishiming。chugeshizai1932nian,rijunzixinanqitouxianghuabeipengjidaji,shezaibeipingdehongshizifenhuigouzaohuabeijiuhuweiyuanhui,jiuhuhuoxiandekangrirongxingshangbing。“yi·erba”shanghaikangzhanbengfa,zonghuijianshangbingbingyuan40yusuo、zailishouliusuo5suo,danfushangbingjiuhuhezailibushishiming。1937nian,kangrizhanyizhouquanbengfa,zhongguohongshizihuidejiangchangjiuhushimingyezaitianxiazhouquanzhengkai。zonghuizaihankoujianlizhongguohongshizihuijiuhuzongdui,xiasheyiliaodui,youzaoqide37ge,chixukuozhandao150ge,yiliaojiuhuzhiyuanjin4000ren,jiuhuche200duoliang,weishengcailiaoku11ge。weiyouyongdipishitianxiagedijiuhushiming,jiuhuzongduizongduizhanglinkeshengboshiweiquanshujiuhuduiyuannidinglebumanrenxingjingshendebatiaojiuhuxintiao:“jufengshuoganqing,baojiuyiziyuan,benboaiduliang,xianmixinjiyi,zuojinmichouban,qiuminjiexiaoli,baoshangbingningjing,zengrenleixingyun。”zaicijingshenzhiyinxia,gegeyiliaoduiheyihuduiyuandoujiejinjinlishiming。yiliaoduidangzhenguanchehongshizigoudanggenjizhunsheng,buguanshiguomindangdangjurongxing,rengshigongchandangdailingdebalujun、xinsijun,shenzhiribenqinfanjundeshangbingzhiyuan,doudengliangqiguanyuyijiuhu。zonghuicengliangcipaiyiliaoduidaoribenzhanfushouliusuodandang900mingzhanfudeyiliaojifangyishiming。baniankangzhanzhong,you114minghongshizihuishimingzhiyuanzairenxingjiuhushimingzhong,huoyingongxunzhi,huojilaobinggu,xianchulekeguidexingming。

       3、kangmeiyuanchaozhanyi

       1950nian6yue,chaoxianzhanyibengfa。zhongguohongshizihuigouzaole7geguojiyiliaobanshidadui、666mingyiwuzhiyuanbenfuchaoxianjiangchangweishangbingyuanbanshi,tamenchaozhuodejiuhushiming,qudezhongchaoliangbiandezanmei,30mingduiyuanyu1952nian1yue29rironghuochaoxianzuigaoguominjihuigongjizhang。

       zhongguohongshizihuihailinpai35mingdaibiaofuchaoxiandaochangjiehehongshizihuixiaozu,daochangfuzuoqianfanzhanfudeshiming。

      (er)zhanyishidaiderenxingshiming

        zhongguohongshizihuizaizhanyishidaiderenxingshimingshouyaoshiyi“gailiangzuiyishouqinhaiquntijingkuang”weishimingfangzhen,huanraobeizai,jiuzai,weishengjiuhuheshequbanshi,chuanbuhongshizigoudanggenjichangshidengjiaodianneirong,dangzhenshixingzhize,zhengkaiheshiwoguoshijidegexiangshiming。

        1、beizaijiuzai

       woguoshiyigetianranzainanpinfadeguodu,beizaijiuzaishimingshizhongguohongshizihuideshouyaozhize。duonianlai,zhongguohongshizihuizidongzhengkaibeizaijiuzaishiming,chongshichanyangdangjurenxingguimozhushouganhua,zuochuleyingyoudejinxian。2003nianshangbannian,mianlincongtianerjiangdefeidianyiqing,gejihongshizihuihefanbohongshizishimingzhe,zidongtourukangjifeidianfendou。zhongguohongshizihuizuoweiguowuyuansigejieguanshehuijuanmujubuzhiyi,gongjieguanshehuijuanmukuanwu6.85yiyuan,bingshishiezhichuzhifenpai,wulidichengchihepeihelekangjifeidiandefendou,zaodaoguowuyuandechengban。

       2、jiuhupeixun、wuchangxianxue、aizibingfangzhi

       zhongguohongshizihuijianlixingminggongcheng,zidongzhengkaidazhongxingdeweishengjiuhupeixunshiming,shenqiezhengkaidijijiuhupeixun,chanyangdazhongxingdeweishengjiuhudeshouyaoganhua。

       zhongguohongshizihuicong1984nianqitouezhiwuchangxianxuedexuanyang、gouzaohedaidongshiming。zhongguohongshizihuizuoweiguowuyuanfangzhiaizibingshimingweiyuanhuichengyuan,zidongdaochanglefangbeiaizibingxuanyangheguanaiaizibinghuanzhehechuanranzhedeshiming。

       3、daochangshequbanshi

       4、chuanbuhongshizigoudanggenjichangshi

       5、jianlizhongguozaoxueganxibaojuanmuzhecailiaoku。zhongguozaoxueganxibaojuanmuzhecailiaokushijianyu1992nian,chenghaowei“zhongguofeixuetongganxigusuiyizhigongzhecailiaoku”(jiancheng“zhonghuagusuiku”), jingzhongbianbanhezhun,jianlile“zhongguozaoxueganxibaocailiaokucaochizhongjian”,danfuzhongguozaoxueganxibaocailiaokudefuzhiyucaochi。

        6、hongshiziqingshaonian

        7、guojixiezuoyugangaotaishiwu

        8、bushichidirenxingbushishimingdexinguimohexinluzi

       (san)chugeshiwuzhongderenxingshiming

       chugeshiwushizhiwuzhuangdichuyiliudetimuhedangjuhuoyouguanfangmianbunenghuofangbianjianjiechuzhi,dancongrenxingdongshenjixuchuzhidetimu。

       1、fuzuoduoliangriqiaofanguo

        diercitianxiadazhanhou,liujuzhongguodaluderibenwaiqiaogongyou3wanduoren,cizhongyou5000duomingfunvyuzhongguorenchenghun,lingyouyiduoliangluokonghushideguerbeizhongguorenshouyang。1949nianzhi1952nian,zhongguohongshizihuicengfuzuoriqiao500duorenfanguo。cong1953nian3yuedao1958nian7yue,gongfuzuo3.2wanmingriqiaoqianwangriben。

         2、fuzuodangjuandunyinzhizaili

        1979nian,yuenanduoliangquzhuzaiyuehuayi,zaiguojishangyinfahendazhenhan。zhongguohongshizihuihexianggansheng(qu)honghuifuzuozhongguodangjujieguanandunle25wanmingyinzhizaili。

        3、buyihaixialianganganxi,jinmiqinmilianganguominlaiwang

       cong20shiji80nianyuezhongqiqitou,zhongguohongshizihuibataiwanshiwushimingdaochangshouyaoyishiricheng,zidongbuyiyucianhongshizigouzaodejieqia,tuotiechuzhicharenzhuanxin、hainanshiwu、taibaotouqinyanshengtimudengshiwuxingshiming。danshixunrenzhuanxin,cong1987niantoudao1988nianmo,gongshoulilianganxunrenhanjian、biaoge22.3wanyujian,weishuwanmingtaibaotaishuzhaodaoshisanjishiniandeqinren。

       1990nian9yuezhongxun,haixialianganhongshizigouzaodaibiaohanzhanglin、chenzhangwendengzaijinmenjiuliangbiandaochangjianzhengqizhuguanjubushixinghaishangqianfan,gaojunhetan,ji《jinmenhetan》,zheishiqijinhaixialianganweiyichanshengganhuade“faze”wenshu。

        4、1989nianchunxiazhijiaoduitiananmenguangchangchugerenqundejiuhu

        1989nian5yueshangxun,beijingyixieaiyouxiappdeshizhangjiaoshifenkaixiaoyuan,yongwangtiananmenguangchang,chixuhenduotianlutianshisu,zuichuchengzhangdaojueshi。yinweijie、weimi,jiashangguangchangweishengqiantimanmanhaozhuan,riyewenchada,bingdaoshizhangjiaoshiriquzengtian,qingshihenqiuzhugaoji。zaiciqingshixia,zhongguohongshizihuizonghuishouhuigaojihaoling,binghuitongbeijingshihongshizihui,benzhehongshizigoudangdegenjizhunsheng,yihongshizihuimingyidiaohegouzaobeijingshiyouguanyiliao、fangyi、huanjingweishengheshiwuweishengdengdanyuan,paichushubaimingshimingzhiyuanhejiuhucheliang,cigubangchenyaopin、dongxi、xiaoduji、shiwujiyinliaodengwupin,jinruguangchang,jiangyibingdaodeshizhangjiaoshidangjisongwanggebingyuanyizhi;wanquanshizhangjiaoshijinkuaiezhijueshi,chetuiguangchang;duiguangchangezhizhouquandasaohexiaodu,bingduishiwuheyinyongshuishixingweishengjianshi。zheixieshimingchixuezhibangeduoyue,baozhengleguangchangweichanshengyiqing,yanhuleshizhangjiaoshimendeankang。

        san、zhongguohongshizihuidefazebaozheng

        hongshizigoudangzhiyishikeyihuoxuhuoxuhuoxubeirenmenbianburentongbingchanshengbianbudeshehuixiaoying,shiyinweitayiqitoujiuzaihengli·dunandechangyixiaqiandingleyibutiaoyue,jiangrenxingsiweiconglunlixueguimokuozhandaofaxueguimo,bazhonglixingguandianyifazeqingshikendingshangqu,bianchengyoushufulidefazebiaozhun,bingliyongyuzhanyihuowuzhuangdichu。yishi,hongshizigoudangcongyiqitoujiuzaodaoguojifadeyanhu,genzhegoudangdeshenqiechengzhang,henduoguoduyedounidinglebenguodehongshizihuifa。woguoyenidingle《zhonghuaguomingongheguohongshizihuifa》heyixiliexiangganfazelvli,weizhongguohongshiziqijidechengzhangzhurulexindexingmingli,chidilegengguangmodechengzhangluzi。

       (yi)guojirenxingfa

        1、jieshuo

        guojirenxingfashihongshizigoudangzaiguojishehuizhengkairenxingbushishimingdefazeanzhao,chuanbuguojirenxingfashihongshizigoudangdeshouyaozhize。

        guojirenxingfayouchengzhanyifahuowuzhuangdichufa。

        guojirenxingfashiguojifalingwangfagongfadeyigefenzhi,shizhizaizhanyihuowuzhuangdichu(guojixinghefeiguojixing)zhong,chuyurenxingdefangzhen,yitiaoyuehelaolideqingshi,yanhubujianjiedaochangzhanyihuobuzaidaochangzhanyidezhiyuan,huadinggejiaobingguohuodichufangzhijianjiaobingbulvdezhunsheng、fazeheguizhidezongcheng。

       2、ganhua

        guojirenxingfadefangzhenbushiweilebimianhuofumiezhanyi,tashouyaoshichuyurenxingdezhenzhuo,jingyouguochengxiandingzuozhantilihezuozhanshouwanlaiyanhuzhanyishounanzhe,xuejianzhanyihuowuzhuangdichudeyankuxing。

       guojirenxingfadejiaodianshi“yanhu”。“yanhu”dedongxishouyaoshibujianjiedaochangzhanyihuobuzaidaochangzhanyidezhiyuan,keyihuoxuhuoxuguinazongheweisangefangmian:

       yishizhiyuan:baoluoshangbingyuan、zhanfu、buyi、yiwuzhiyuan、zongjiaozhiyuan,peidaihongshizi、hongyueyahuohongshuijingbiaojidejiuhuzhiyuan;

       ershichanghe、wupin:baoluobingyuanheyiwuyongche、zongjiaohuowenhuachanghe、minyongwupinhuochanghe;

       sanshitianranhuanjing:baoluoyurenleibaocunjinmiqinmixianggandetianranhuanjing,ruconglin、hedao、shuikudeng。

       3、genjizhunsheng

       guojirenxingfahanyoujigegenjizhunsheng,heyongyutongtongzhanyihuowuzhuangdichu:

      ①renxingzhunsheng:yanhuzhanyishounanzhe。zheishiguojirenxingfadejiaodian,tongtongfeizhanyiyuanbixuqudezunjing、yanhuherenxingrenwei。

      ②bianbiezhunsheng:zaizuozhanzhongbixuyankuduizhanyiyuanyufeizhanyiyuanjiayibianbie,zheishiguojirenxingfazuigenjidexiandinghehuading。

      ③junshixuyaozhunsheng:zaizhanyizhongjinfanjunshizhiyuanhefangzhenshihefade,keshiyingjinkeyihuoxuhuoxudixiandingsuogouchengdeweixianheqinhai。

      ④bilizhunsheng:dangyanhubukeyihuoxuhuoxushijueduideshichen,yingchengxihaoxin,yong“renxing”he“junshixuyao”zheiliangxiangzhunshengbicixianding。

      ⑤zhizhipengjizhunsheng:yanjinduiguojirenxingfayanhudedongxijienapengjibulv。zheiyizhunshengshijueduide。jibianzaiduifangyijienaleweibeiguojirenxingfadebulvdehuanjingxia,yebunengshiyijienarenhepengjibulv。

       4、shouyaofazewenshujigenjifaze

        guojirenxingfashiyouyixilietiaoyue、tiaoyue、xuanyanhehetangouchengde,cizhong,1949niansiburineiwatiaoyuejiqifujiayidingshushiguojirenxingfadeshouyaofazewenshu,shiguojirenxingfazuijiaodiandeneirong。

       ①rineiwasitiaoyuejiqifujiayidingshu

    ——1864nian8yuezairineiwaqiandingde《gailiangzhandiwuzhuangduiwushangzhebingzhejiyuzhirineiwatiaoyue》(youchengrineiwadiyitiaoyue);

    ——1899nian7yuezaihaiyaqiandingde《gailianghaishangwuzhuangduiwushangzhebingzheyuyuchuannanzhejiyuzhirineiwatiaoyue》(youchengrineiwadiertiaoyue);

    ——1929nian1yuezaihaiyaqiandingde《duizhanfurenweizhitiaoyue》(youchengrineiwadisantiaoyue);

    ——1949nian8yuezairineiwaqiandingde《duizhanshiyanhubuyizhitiaoyue》(youchengrineiwadisitiaoyue)。

       yinwei1949nian8yuedejiaojijihuizainidingduiyanhubuyidedisirineiwatiaoyuedetongshi,haianzhaoxindeqingshiduiqiansanbutiaoyuezuolediancuan,duitiaozezuolexindebailie,shiyi,shangshuzheisibutiaoyuetongchengwei1949nian8yue12ririneiwasitiaoyue。

       1974nianzhi1977nianzhaokaide“duizhongshenhechengzhangheyongyuwuzhuangdichudeguojirenxingfajiaojijihui”,yu1977nian6yue8ribuhejingyouguochengrineiwatiaoyuedelianggefujiayidingshu。ruxu,yibuwanzhengdeduiyanhuzhanyihuowuzhuangdichushounanzhede“guojirenxingfa”defadianzhengshigoucheng。

diyifujiayidingshushiduiyanhuguojixingwuzhuangdichushounanzhedefujiayidingshu(diyiyidingshu);

dierfujiayidingshushiduiyanhufeiguojixingwuzhuangdichushounanzhedefujiayidingshu(dieryidingshu)。

       2005nian12yue,youruishidangjudiaojiderineiwajiaojijihui,192gerineiwatiaoyuediyueguodianmoshangliang,jingyouguocheng《1949nian8yue12ririneiwatiaoyueduijienayigexinzengchugebiaojidefujiayidingshu(disanyidingshu)》,jienahongshuijingbiaojiweidisanbiaoji。

       jinchao,quantianxiatongtongzhuquanguodu(gong194ge)douhezhunchashoule1949nianrineiwasitiaoyue,shidegaitiaoyuehaowuyinandichengweiguojixiqifadeyijubu。

       ②rineiwasitiaoyuejiqifujiayidingshudegenjifaze

1949nianrineiwasitiaoyuejiqifujiayidingshutiaozedanyi(gongyou600duotiao),neirongxiangxibingqiepangza。weibianyubianbuchuanbuhezaizhanyizhongjingque、minjiediluoshi,1979nian,hongshiziguojiweiyuanhuizongjielerineiwasitiaoyuejiqifujiayidingshudeqitiaogenjifaze:

        a、tongtongbujianjiedaochang、huoyuanlaidaochangdanyouchashouzhanyideren,xiangyouxingmingdequanli,bingbudezaodaorenshenhuojingshenshangdejinfan。zairenhehuanjingxia,tamendouyingqudeyanhuyurenxingderenwei。

        b、zhizhishaluhuoweixianjiangfupeifuhuoyichashouzhanyidedifangzhiyuan。

        c、dichugefangyingdazaiqijiezhixiadeshangyuanhebingzhejiayicigubangchen。yanhudongxihaiyinghangaiyiwuzhiyuan、yiliaojucuocuoshi、yiwuyunshujiyiliaozhuangbei。hongshizihuohongyueyabiaojiweicizhongyanhudebiaoji,bixuyuyizunjing。

        d、zaiyouaiyifangjiezhixiadebeifuzhanyiyuanzhanyimin,qixingming、zhuangyan、xiaowoquanliyuxinxin,junyingzaodaozunjing。tamenyingzaodaoyanhu,mianshougeleibaoliyupengjibulvdeweixian。tamenyingyouquanyujiarentongxun,hejieguanbushi。

        e、meixiaowodouyouquanxiangyonggenjidefalingbaozheng。renherendoubuyingweitasuobuzuoguodeshimingdanfu,yebuyingmengshoujingshenshanghuojingshenshangdeyanxing、tifa,huoqiwuxingderenwei。

        f、dichugefangjiwuzhuangduiwuchengyuantiaoxuanzhanyidetiliyushouwanjunzaodaoxianding,zhizhiliyongjubeigouchengbuxuyaosangshihuoguofenweixianxingdebingqihuozhanyitili。

        g、dichugefangzairenshenmeshichenchenjunyingjiangbuyidazhongyuzhanyiyuanjiayibianbie,yibimianbuyidazhongjibuyicaichanzaodaoweixian。buguanshibuyiquntihuobuyixiaowo,doubuyingchengweijinfandefangzhen。jinfanyingzhizhenduijunshifangzhen。

zhongguodangjuduiyouguanguojirenxingfadeguojihetanhetiaoyue,junchizidongdetaidu。zaozai1904nian6yue29ri,neishideqingdangjujiuyichashoule《gailiangzhandilujunshangzhebingzhejiyuzhirineiwatiaoyue》;1904nianhe1910nianhaibieliqiandingbinghezhunle1899nianhe1907niandelianggehaiyatiaoyue。1912niansunzhongshanshizhangjiaoshidailingxiadezhonghuaminguojianlihou,youdangjibanbubanfadandangzheilianggehaiyatiaoyue。1949nian4yuezhi8yue,neishidezhonghuaminguodangjupaidaibiaodaochanglezairineiwatingzhidejiaojijihui,qiandinglerineiwasitiaoyue。

1949nian,zhonghuaguomingongheguojianlihou,zhongjiandangjuanzhao1949nian《zhongguoguominzhengzhixieshangjihuipeihegangyao》di55tiao“duiguomindangjuyulieguodangjusuodinglidegexiangtiaoyuehehetan,zhonghuaguomingongheguozhongjiandangjujiayijiancha,anqineirong,bieliyuyirenke,huobachu,huodingzheng,huozhongding”dehuading,1952nian,zhengwuyuanzonglijianjiaojibuzhangzhouenlaidaibiaozhonghuaguomingongheguobanfashenming,renke1949nianrineiwasitiaoyue。1956nian11yue5ri,tianxiarendachangweihuidi50cijihuihezhunrineiwasitiaoyue。1983nian9yue2ri,diliujietianxiarendachangweihuidi2cijihuijuezechashoulianggefujiayidingshu。tongshishenming,duirineiwasitiaoyuejiqifujiayidingshudegetitiaomuyuyibaoliu。

        2007nian,jingzhongjianhezhun,zhizaizengqiangchuanbuheshixingguojirenxingfadezhongguoguojirenxingfaguoduweiyuanhuijianli。zhongguohongshizihuidailingdandangdiaojiren,banshijigoushezaizhongguohongshizihuizonghui。

 

红十字勾当根基准绳

       hongshizigoudangdezhuangdaxingmingli,chuzangyutaduirenleibucunzaiqingshi、qijianderenxingsiwei。zheigesiweishouyaobiaociketasuotuixingdegenjizhunshengdangzhong。

        xianxingdehongshizigoudanggenjizhunsheng,ji:renxing、gongdao、zhongli、zili、ziyuanbanshi、tongyi、bianbu,shizai1965nianzhaokaidedi20jiehongshiziyuhongyueyaguojidahuishangzhengshijingyouguochengde。zheiqixiangzhunshengjishibengoudangquanshugouchengjigousuobixuzunshoudetedingdezhunsheng,yeshibengoudangdegeleibulvdebiaozhunhebiaozhun。

        yi、genjizhunshengdeneihan

       (yi)renxing

        jieshuo:“guojihongshiziyuhongyueyagoudangdebenyishibujiaqingshidijiuhuzhandishangyuan,buguanshiguojidichurengshiguojidichu。jinlibimianbingjiazhongrenmendetongku,buguanzheileitongkuchanshengzaishenmechusuo。bengoudangdezhuzhishiyanhurendexingmingheankang,baozhengrenleidezhuangyan;zengjinrenyurenzhijiandebicilinghui、youyihexiezuo,zengjinnaijiuzhanyi。”renxingzhunshengshihongshizitongtongshimingdegenben。yanhu,shirenxingzhunshengzhongyigehenshishouyaodeguandian。yanhuzheigecidegenjijiyishi:1、zanzhurenmenbikaijinfanhelingnve;2、jinzhipumierenhuoshiqishiluodezuofa;3、zhizurenmendeningjingxuyao,zanzhurenmenbaocunheezhiziwofanghu。

      (er)gongdao

        jieshuo:“bengoudangbuyinguoji、zhongzu、zongjiaochongfeng、jiecenghezhengzhikanfaeryousuoqingshi,jinanzhaoxuyao,jinlijiazhongrenmendetongku,youxianbushijiankuzuigaojideren。”gongdaozhunshengdediyigeneihan:buqingshi。buqingshi,duishouyizhejienagongyundebulv,shihongshizidejinghua,congyiqitoujiuzai《rineiwatiaoyue》zhongqudebiaoxian。gongdaozhunshengdediergeneihan:ciyumonanzheyuqitongkushuipingxiangdengdezanzhu。buqingshi,yiweizheduitongtongchuyujiankudangzhongderendouyingciyuzanzhu。keshi,ruoshibuzhenzhuotamenchabiedetongkushuiping,buzhenzhuotamenxuyaodegaojishuipingerjunyunciyutamenzanzhu,zheijiuchengweibugongdaole。guojirenxinglvliding,duimouxiechugeyishouqinhaifanlideshouyanhuzhe,rufunv、ertonghebaisoudeng,bixuciyuyouxianrenwei;duishangzhehebingzheciyuwanzhenghuayidecigubangchenheyanhu,chuyugaojideyizhiyuanyouyingzaijiuzhishimingzhongzuochuyouxianzhipei。

gongdaozhunshengdedisangeneihan:jiechuxiaowochengjian。

gongdao,congshizhishangjiang,bianshiqingqiupaoquekeguanbianbie,jiechuxiaowochengjian,dengliangqiguan。

       (san)zhongli

       jieshuo:“weilechixuqudetongtongrendexinlai,bengoudangzaidichuliangbianzhijianbujienataidu,renshenmeshichenchenyebudaochangchujizhengzhi、zhongzu、zongjiaohuorenshixingzhuangdezhengbian。”

       zhonglikefenweijunshizhongli、renshixingzhuangzhonglihehongshiziguojiweiyuanhuichugezhonglisangefangmian:

       junshizhongli——shizhizaiwuzhuangdichuhuosaoluanchangmiandibuzhongbujienarenheyoukeyihuoxuhuoxucushiyouguangefangjiazhongyouaibulvdebulv。renshixingzhuangdezhongli——shizhizairenshenmeshichenchendoubikaizhengzhizhengbian、zongjiaozhengbianhuoqiyurenshixingzhuangzhengbian。guojiweiyuanhuidezhongli——weishixingrineiwatiaoyuegediyueguofuyutadezhizehezaizuoweizhonglizhechanyangganhuashiliyongchangyiquan,guojiweiyuanhuibixuduizhibenshendezhongli。

       (si)zili

       jieshuo:“bengoudangshizilide。guranlieguohonghuishibenguodangjurenxingshimingdezhushoubingshoubenfalingwangfagongfazedexianding,danbixuyizhiduizhizili,yibianrenshenmeshichenchendounenganbengoudangdezhunshengxingshi。”

        zilizhunshengqingqiuduiguoduhonghuidechugexingziciyuqueren,guoduhonghuichabieyuguojiqiyucibeijigou,tadezhengshishenfenshibenguodangjuzairenxingshimingfangmiandezhushou,danyucitongshi,guoduhonghuizaiguojibixuxiangyouzhenshideziliquan,baozhengkeyihuoxuhuoxuhuoxuzairenshenmeshichenchendouanzhaogenjizhunshengxingshi。huanjuhuashuo,buguanzaizhanshihuorichangpingfan,guoduhonghuidouyingzuoweibenguodangjudezhushouchanyangganhua,danjuebunengyirenhetilipaoquebenshendejuezejihuazizai,zhiyaoruxu,guoduhonghuinengliduizhiduirenxing、gongdaohezhongliliniandeqiancheng。

        guoduhonghuibixuqudebenguodangjuderenke。congguojiganxishangshuo,qudebenguodangjuderenkeshimeigeguodujubeideshixiangqiantizhiyi,buranbunengchashouguojihongshizigoudangbingchengweiqihefadeyiyuan。congguojiganxishangshuo,guoduhonghuiqudeguodufazederenke,shishiguoduhonghuichabieyuqiyucibeigouzaobingxukeqizaiwuzhuangdichushidaixiangyourineiwasitiaoyuejiqifujiayidingshudeyanhuheliyonghongshizigoudangbiaojidequanli。suiranguoduhonghuizuigenjidezhizeshizaizhanshizanzhuwuzhuangduiwuyiwujubuqiangjiushangbingyuan,dantamendoumanmanchidilezhanyishidaideshiming。cike,guoduhonghuizaibeizaijiuzai、weishengjiuhu、shequbanshihechuanbuguojirenxingfafangmianchanyangzheshouyaodeganhua。zailiyongzheixiezhizeshi,guoduhonghuiyiranzuoweibenguodangjuderenxingzhushouzhengkaishiming。zheileizanzhushimingdetiliputongyouliangzhong,yishianzhaodangjudemingbaibaituo,jubudanfuhuozaitianxiaguimoneizhouquandanfumouxieshiming;ershizijuedichengdangmouxieshiming,congerjiazhongdangjudemouxiechengdang。bifang,zaichanshengneizhanshi,guoduhonghuijuebunengyidangjudedongxidemiankongchengxian,yinweitadebudaodichugefangdexinlaiermeifashixingqisuochengdangdezhize。

        duilieguohonghuilaishuo,duizhizilizhunshengshouyaoshizhunquechuzhiyubenguodangjudeganxi。congfazeshangjiang,hongshizihuishidangjuzhushou,fuzuodangjuezhirenxingguimolideshiming,danhongshizihuizuoweihongshizigoudanggouzaojigouzhongdechengyuan,bixuzilizilidizhengkaishiming。congshijishiminglaishuo,hongshizihuidailingjigouyoudangjuguanyuandaochang,bianyudiaoheshiming,danzaiduihongshizihuiyanzhongtimuzuochujuezejihuashibixuanzhaohongshizihuizhangchengxingshi。

       (wu)ziyuanbanshi

        jieshuo:“bengoudangshiziyuanbushigoudang,haobuxijiyirenheqingshiqudeyichu。”

        ziyuanbanshideyisiheganhua:

        1、renxingdebulvheyiwei。ziyuanbanshidejinghuashiduibierenbanshierbutaoqurenwei,zheibianshiduirenxingzhunshengdejianjieshufa。

        2、guoduhonghuizilixingdebiaoxian。guoduhonghuiweiledikanglaiziwaijiedehaofanyali,duizhibenshendezilixing,anzhaogenjizhunshengbanshi,bixuyouhaofandeziyuanshimingzhe,chugeshizaiguoduneizhanzhonghewaibusaoluanzhong,dangguodugeliechengyouaigefangshi,ruoshiguoduhonghuidebudaolaizigegechabiedezhengzhi、zongjiaoheshehuiquntideziyuanshimingzhedechengchi,tajiubunengqudedichugefangdexinlai,jiumeifakaojintongtongdeshouyizhe。

        3、duibengoudangdeyizhongjingjichengchi。zheishiyinweihaofandeziyuanshimingzhedoubutaoqurenwei,guoduhonghuikeyihuoxuhuoxuyonggengduodezijinweishehuigongjibanshi。

      (liu)tongyi

        jieshuo:“renheyigeguoduzhinengyouyigehongshizihuihuohongyueyahui。tabixuxiangtongtongrenkaifang,bixuzaitianxiaguimoneizhengkairenxingshiming。”

        zheigezhunshengshiqixianggenjizhunshengzhonghanqingzuiyouzhangdezhunshengzhiyi。

        “tongyi”baoluosangeyinsu,yeshiguoduhonghuiqudebengoudangrenkebixudaodadesangegenjiqianti:

    1、guoduhonghuibixushizheigeguoduweiyiwuerdehongshizigouzao

    2、dengliangqiguandijieshouhuiyuan

       guoduhonghuibixuxiangtongtongderenkaifang,zaijieshouzhuanzhishimingzhiyuan、huiyuanheziyuanshimingzheshi,doubudezhenzhuozhongzu、xingbie、zongjiao、jiecengjizhengzhikanfa。

       3、shiminggoudangbianbuquanshuguoduguotu

      congzhunshengshangjiang,guoduhonghuizaiqiguoduzhongdeweiyiwuerdeweizhi,yidingqingqiutadegoudangbianbuguoduguotudemeigejiaoluo。

      (qi)bianbu

       jieshuo:“guojihongshiziyuhongyueyagoudangshitianxiaxingde。zaizheigegoudangzhong,tongtongdehongshizihuihuohongyueyahuidouxiangyouhuayiweizhi,fuyouyiyangzerenhezeren,bingbicizengyuan。”

       congbenyuanshangshuo,bianbuxingshiyinweirenleidemonanshibianbude,yishi,duimonanzhedezengyuanyegaidangshibianbude,zheishibengoudangdexuyaoqianti。biede,bianbuxingyoufanyingchuduimonanzhedezengyuanchaochulechabieguodu、chabierenshixingzhuangdebuhe,gengbiaoxianchuhongshizigoudangdehuanqiudaochanghegoudang,shiyi,benzhunshengyeshishijidexiezhao。

       er、genjizhunshengdeneihanganxi

       zuoweihongshizigoudangdegenjizhunsheng,tashiyigequanshu,fuyulebengoudangxiangxidetedianhexingzi。gexiangzhunshengdeshouyaoxingbingbuwanzhengbuyi,dantamenzhijiandoujubeiluojijieqiabingqiehuweiganhua,duicizhongrenheyixiangzhunshengdequanshidouyaojieqiaqiyuzhunshengdejiyi,xiangfanxiangcheng,xiangxingjianchu。

       qixianggenjizhunshengzhong,renxingzhunshengjuyouchugedeweizhi,tashibengoudangdegenben,shitongtonggoudangdedongshendianheluojiaodian;gongdao、zhongli、zilizhunshengshibaozhengbengoudangdaodaqifangzhendegenjiyinsu;ziyuanbanshi、tongyihebianbuzhunshengshibengoudanggouzaoshangdequxiang(gouzaozhunsheng)。shiyi,renxingzhunshengshishitihuogenbenzhunsheng,qiyudezhunshengdoushirenxingzhunshengdeyinshenhebuchong(yanshengzhunsheng)。

 

红十字勾当标记

     《zhonghuaguomingongheguohongshizibiaojiliyongfangshi》mingbai,hongshizigoudangbiaoji“shiguojirenxingzhuyiyanhubiaoji,shiwuzhuangqiliyiliaojigoudetedingbiaoji,shihongshizihuidegongyongbiaoji”。tadecunzaihezhunqueliyong,duihongshizigoudangzaiguojishehuizhengkairenxingbushishimingqizhexiangdangshouyaodeganhua。

       yi、biaojidejiyi

       hongshizigoudangbiaojishouyaoyouyixiajiyi:

       yanhuxing——biaomingzheishiyigezaodaoguojirenxingfayanhuderenhuowu,buyingzaodaojinfanderenhuowu。

       biaomingxing(yichengbianrenxinghuosuoshixing)——biaomingzheishiyuhongshizigoudangyouguanderenhuowu。

       daiyouzheiyibiaojiderenhewu,zaifazeshangjixiangyouquanli,tongshiyechengdangzeren。quanlishizaodaoyixiliefazedeyanhu,zerenshizunshougaibiaojiduitamenbulvdegezhongxiandingyushufu,bimianzidongdaochangrenheyouaibulv。

       er、biaojidefayuanyuchengzhang

       1863nian2yuezairineiwajianlideshangbingjiuhuguojiweiyuanhuizhenzhuo,jianyujiangchangjiuhushimingdetetongxing,weishizhanyizhongshoushangzhedengliangqiguandiqudebushi,youxuyaojienayigeqingshijianlve、yiyubianrendebiaoji,laibiaomingzaizhanshiyongyuezhiyiliaohebushigoudangdezhiyuan、chelianghexiujianwu;bingyiwei,duizheigebiaojijiqiliyongdexiangxihuadinggaidangyiyixiangguojitiaoyuedeqingshilaogushangqu,yibaozhengdichugefangzunjingbingyanhupeidaizheiyibiaojidezhiyuan。

       shiyi,zai1863nian10yuezhaokaiderineiwaguojijihuishang,shangbingjiuhuguojiweiyuanhuijimingchengyuanjiutichuyixiangyian:yiyinyouhongshizidehongsexiuzhangzuoweiyiwuzhiyuandeyanhuxingbiaoji。1906nian7yue6ridingzhengderineiwatiaoyuezemingbaihuading:weiduiruishibiaoxianjingyi,jianglianbangguoqisecaifanzhuanerchengdebaidihongshiziqiyang,liuzuowuzhuangduiwuyiwujubudebiaojihechugebiaoji。erhou,1929nian7yue27rihe1949nian8yue12ridingzhengderineiwatiaoyuedouzhongshencihuading。

       hongshizibiaojichucizaizhanyizhongbeijienashizai1864nian3yuedepulushiyudanmaizhijianderilesuyigezhanyi。hongshiziguojiweiyuanhuishenzhiquanshuhongshizigoudanghenkuaijiuyicierzhumingyushi,chanshenglepangdadedaoyiqilihefazexiaoying。chuhongshizibiaojiwai,lingyouhongyueyabiaoji、hongshiyutaiyangbiaoji、hongshuijingbiaojidengbiaoji,yinliyongzheixiebiaojideguoduhediyubinishao,yebinichuge,zanmenputongbuhuidazhangdao,zheilijiubuzuoxianrongle。

       san、biaojideliyong

       anzhao1949nianrineiwatiaoyue(diyitiaoyue)he1977nianfujiayidingshu(diyiyidingshu)dehuading,biaojidexiangxiliyongfangshiyixia:

       (yi)yanhuxingliyong

       zuoweiyanhuxingbiaoji,tazaizhanshishidaibiaorineiwatiaoyuedebiaoji,shianzhaorineiwatiaoyuehuadingxiangrenhewu(yiwuzhiyuan、yiwujubu、chelianghezhuangbei)gongjiyanhudeyiwei。qiliyongquangenjishangshuyugediyueguojiqirongxingdeyiwujubu,hexiangrongxingyiwujubugongjizanzhubingqudezhengshirenkedebushijigou,chugeshilieguohonghuidoukeyihuoxuhuoxuliyongzheiyiyanhuxingbiaoji。danzhinengzaiwuzhuangdichushiliyong,bingqiebixuanzhaojunfangdesuoshiezhibiaoshi。zaiyongzuoyanhuxingbiaojishi,tazaisuobiaoshidexiujianwuhuocheliangshangdechicunyaojueduidayixie,yibiancongyuanchubiankebianren。

       (er)biaomingxingliyong

       putongdishuo,zaizhanyishidai,lieguohonghuizaiheshibenfalingwangfagongfazedehuanjingxia,keyihuoxuhuoxubazheiyibiaojizuoweibiaomingxingbiaoji。

biaomingxingbiaojideliyong,putongbaoluojizhonghuanjing:

    1、congshubiaoji:keyihuoxuhuoxuyongzaiqihao、daiyoudidiandebiaopai、qichepaisi、shimingzhiyuanhuizhangdengwupinshang,biaominghuorenmouwushuyumouguohonghui。

    2、zhuanghuangbiaoji:keyihuoxuhuoxuyongzailieguohonghuibanfadexunzhang、jiangzhangheqiyujiangpin、chushuwuhuozhuanghuangxingdanqingshang。

    3、xiaxiangbiaoji:keyihuoxuhuoxuyongyuqiangjiuzhan、luzizhongjian、goudangchangneihuoqiyudazhongjucuocuoshishanghexiangshangbingbuyigongjishoufeiyiliaodejiuhucheshang。

       duibiaojidebuhefaliyongbixuguoduanxianding、quxiaohechengban。

       buguanshizaizhanyishidairengshizaizhanyishidai,douyaobaxuanyangheyanhubiaojidezhunqueliyong,zuoweihongshizigoudanggegouchengjubudeyixiangshouyaoshiming。

 

红十字勾当机构及本能机能

       hongshizigoudangyousangejubugoucheng,ji:hongshiziguojiweiyuanhui(jianchengguojiweiyuanhui,jianliyu1863nian);hongshizihuiyuhongyueyahuiguojijiehehui(jianchengguojijiehehui,jianliyu1919nian);guoduhongshizihuihuohongyueyahui(jianchenglieguohonghui)。

      《guojihongshiziyuhongyueyagoudangzhangcheng》(jianchenggoudangzhangcheng)mingbailehongshizigoudangshiming:bimianbingjiazhongbuguanchanshengzaineibianderenleitongku;yanhurendexingmingheankang;baozhengrenleizhuangyan,tebieshizaichanshengwuzhuangdichuheqiyugaojihuanjingdeshichen;weifangbeijibing、zengjinankangheshehuifuliershiming;gudongmianliziyuanbanshi,gudongmianlibengoudangdechengyuansuishizuohaochoubangongjizanzhu,gudongmianliduineixiexuyaobengoudangyanhuhezanzhuderenchiyoubianbudetongganqing。

        hongshizigoudangsangegouchengjubujunweizilijigou,yougezideweizhi,buxiangqiyujigouliyongquanli。

        zaizhanyihuowuzhuangdichuzhong,hongshiziguojiweiyuanhuiqizhudaojigouganhua;zaitianranzainanzhong,hongshizihuiyuhongyueyahuiguojijiehehuiqizhudaojigouganhua;zaichugehuanjingzhong,guoduhonghuiqizhudaoganhua;zaijiyouzhanyihuowuzhuangdichu,youyoutianranzainandehuanjingzhong,youhongshiziguojiweiyuanhuizhudaodiaohe。

        hongshizigoudangdefadingjigouyou:hongshiziyuhongyueyaguojidahui,hongshiziyuhongyueyagoudangdaibiaojihui,hongshiziyuhongyueyachangsheweiyuanhui。

        yi、hongshiziguojiweiyuanhuijiqibennengjineng

       1986nian10yue,di25jiehongshiziyuhongyueyaguojidahuijingyouguochengdegoudangzhangchengzaiyiwangsuochengdangdebennengjinenggenbenshang,duiguojiweiyuanhuidebennengjinengzuoleyixiadehuading:

       l、yanhubingchuanbuhongshizigoudangdegenjizhunsheng;

       2、renkeheshiqiantidexinzujianhuogaixuandeguoduhonghui,bingjiangcirenkegaosulieguohonghui;

       3、chengdangrineiwatiaoyuefuyudeshiming,weizhonghoushixingguojirenxingfaerjinli,bingshouliyouguanweibeigaifadesusong;

       4、zaiguojixinghefeiguojixingwuzhuangdichuhuoneihongzhongyizhonglipinfenchuzhirenxingshimingshi,jinlibaozhengxiangmengshoucileishiwuqinhaideshounanzhiyuangongjiyanhuhebushi;

       5、baozhengrineiwatiaoyuehuadingdezhongjianxunrenjugoudang;

       6、wuzhuangdichuzhiqian,yulieguohonghuixiezuo,jinliyuyiwuzhiyuandepeixunheyiliaodongxidechouban;

       7、quanshihechuanbuheyongyuwuzhuangdichudeguojirenxingfa,bingbiancezheileifazedechengzhang;

       8、shixinghongshiziyuhongyueyaguojidahuibaituodeshiming。

        er、hongshizihuiyuhongyueyahuiguojijiehehuijiqibennengjineng

       anzhaogoudangzhangchengheguojijiehehuizhangchenghuading,guojijiehehuideshouyaobennengjinengshi:

       1、zuoweilieguohonghuizhijianjieqia、diaohehejinxiudechangshejigou,anzhaolieguohonghuideqingqiuxiangtamengongjizanzhu;

       2、gudongmianlihezengjinzaitongtongguodujianlihechengzhangzilibinghuorenkedeguoduhonghui;

       3、jienatongtongkeyihuoxuhuoxudetilixiangtongtongaihonggongjibushi;

       4、zaizainanbushichouban、bushigoudangdegouzaojishizaixingdengfangmianxiangguoduhonghuigongjizengyuan;

       5、anzhaoguojidahuijingyouguochengde《hongshiziyuhongyueyazainanbushizhunshengyutiaoli》gouzao、diaohehezhidianguojibushigoudang;

       6、gudongmianlihediaohelieguohonghuiyubenguodangjujigouxiezuodaochangzhizaibaozhengdazhongankanghezengtianshehuifulidegoudang;

       7、gudongmianlihediaohelieguohonghuijiaohuanduiduiertongheqingnianezhirenxingzhuyijiaodaohechengzhanglieguoqingshaonianzhijiandeyouaiganxi;

       8、fuzuoguoduhonghuicongquanshuguominzhongzhaomuhuiyuan,bingduitamenezhihongshizigoudanggenjizhunshengdejiaodao;

       9、anzhaoyuguojiweiyuanhuiqiandingdehetan,xiangwuzhuangdichudeshouyizhegongjizanzhu;

      10、zanzhuguojiweiyuanhuizengjinhechengzhangguojirenxingfa,bingyuqixiezuo,zailieguohonghuizhongxuanyangguojirenxingfahehongshizigoudanggenjizhunsheng;

       11、zaiguojishang,tebieshichuzhichujijiehehuidahuijingyouguochengdejuegouhechangyidengshiwu,dandanglieguohonghuidezhengshidaibiao,bingdandanglieguohonghuiziliwanzhengdejianhurenheqihaochudeyanhuren;

      12、shixingguojidahuibaituodeshiming。

      san、guoduhongshizihuihuohongyueyahuijiqibennengjineng

     (yi)jianliguoduhongshizihuihuohongyueyahuideshixiangqianti

       1、jianlizaiyigeziliguodudeguotushang,gaiguoyichashouyouguangailiangzhandiwuzhuangduiwushangbingzhejiyuzhirineiwatiaoyue。

       2、shigaiguoweiyideguoduhonghui,qieyouyiqizhongjianjigoudailing;zaiyubengoudangqiyuchengyuanlaiwangshi,zhongjianjigoushiweiyiyouzilidaibiaogaihuide。

       3、yiqudegaiguodangjuanzhaorineiwatiaoyuezhengshirenkeqiweiziyuanjiuhubushixiaowo,fuzuodangjuezhirenxingshiming。

       4、jubeizilizilideweizhi,keyihuoxuhuoxuhuoxuzunshouhongshizigoudangdegenjizhunshengezhigoudang。

       5、jienarineiwatiaoyuejiqifujiayidingshusuohuadingdeyigechenghaohechugebiaoji。

       6、gouzaoyouxu,nengshixingqizhangchengsuokendingdeshiming,baoluozaizhanyishidaizuohaochouban,yibianzaichanshengwuzhuangdichushishixingqifadingbennengjineng。

    7、qigoudangxubianbugaiguoguotu。

       8、zaizhaomushimingzhiyuanheziyuanshimingzheshi,buyinzhongzu、xingbie、jieceng、zongjiaohezhengzhipianxiangeryousuoqingshi。

       9、yankuzunshouxianxingdehongshizigoudangdezhangchengjifaze,bingyubengoudanggechengyuanxiezuo。

       10、zunjinghongshizigoudangdegenjizhunsheng,yiguojirenxingfazhidianqigoudang。

     (er)guoduhongshizihuihuohongyueyahuidebennengjineng

lieguohonghuishibengoudangdegenjichengyuanheshouyaoqili。lieguohonghuishibenguodangjurenxingshimingdezhushou,shizilizilidetianxiaxingxiaowo,anzhaogezidezhangchenghebenguolifachuzhiheshibengoudangshiminghegenjizhunshengderenxingshiming。shouyaobaoluo:jiuzai,beizai,weishengjiuhu,shequbanshi,chuanbuguojirenxingfa,qingshaoniangoudang,xunren;lieguohonghuizhijiandebicichengchiheduiguojiweiyuanhui、guojijiehehuidechengchi。

       si、hongshiziyuhongyueyaguojidahui、daibiaojihuihechangsheweiyuanhuibennengjineng

      (yi)hongshiziyuhongyueyaguojidahui

       hongshiziyuhongyueyaguojidahui(jianchengguojidahui)shihongshizigoudangdezuigaoshengouhejuezejihuajigou。guojidahuifanshimeisinianzhaokaiyici。

guojidahuideshouyaobennengjinengshi:

      1、wanzhengzunshougenjizhunsheng,jinliyubengoudangdetongyiheshimingdewancheng。

      2、jinlizunjinghechengzhangguojirenxingfaheqiyuyubengoudangyouguandeguojitiaoyue。

      3、diancuangoudangzhangchengdingdinghetongshifaze;jiugoudangzhangchengdingdinghetongshifazedequanshijishixingsuochengxiandebuhe,zuochuzhongjiujueze;jiuchangsheweiyuanhui、guojiweiyuanhuiheguojijiehehuitijiaodetimuzuochujueze。

      4、anzhaoguojiweiyuanhuiheguojijiehehuidezhangchengjigoudangzhangcheng,xianglianggouzaozhipaishiming。

     (er)hongshiziyuhongyueyagoudangdaibiaojihui

hongshiziyuhongyueyagoudangdaibiaojihui(jianchengdaibiaojihui)shibengoudanggechengyuandedaibiaojihuijihuishangyouguanbengoudangxiaowoshiwudejigou。youlieguohonghui、guojiweiyuanhui、guojijiehehuisanfangdaibiaogoucheng。daibiaojihuifanshimeiliangnianzhaokaiyici,yuguojijiehehuidahuitongshizhaokai。

daibiaojihuidebennengjinengshi:jiuzhengcetimuhuobengoudangchengyuanpeihecunjuandetimutichudingjian;zaiguojidahuikaihuishidaidanfujingyouguochengguojidahuidezandingyicheng;chuzhizhuruluyonggeweiyuanhuizhuxijiguojidahuizuoshidengfashishangdetimu。

      (san)hongshiziyuhongyueyachangsheweiyuanhui

       hongshiziyuhongyueyachangsheweiyuanhui(jianchengchangsheweiyuanhui)shiliangjieguojidahuishidaidedahuidaibiao(changshe)jigou。

       changsheweiyuanhuizuishaomeiyinianzhaokaiyicijihui,qishouyaobennengjinengshi:zhunbeiguojidahuibingquebaodahuideshunsuiezhi;zaiguojidahuikaihuishidai,danfuchuzhigoudangzhangchengdingdinghetongshifazedequanshiheshixingshangchengxiandetimu;chuzhiguojiweiyuanhuihuoguojijiehehuitijiaodetimu,danzhongjiujuezexujingguojidahuizancheng;banfahengli·dunanjiangzhang。

 

红十字勾当发源

       hongshizigoudangfayuanyujiangchangjiuhu,shirenleiwenhuaqianjindeyiwei,shirenleishehuichengzhangdeyidingchanpin。“youmonandechusuojiuyouhongshizihui,youhongshizihuidechusuojiuyoudanyuan。”zheijuhuayibeiyulaiyuduodexianshisuozhengshi。 

       hongshizigoudangqitouyu19shijizhongyedeouzhou,ruishirenhengli·dunan(1828—1910)shihongshizigoudangdekaichuangren。hengli·dunanyu1828nian5yue8rijiangshengyuruishirineiwa。cong18suiqi,hengli·dunanqitoujinxiuyinxingyingye,jinianhoutajiubeiwaipaidaoaerjiliyadeyijiayinxingrenzongsili。hefahengli·dunanzaimaoyishenghuoshengjishangzouxiangshenglideshichen,yichangzhanyi——suoerfulinuozhanyizhuanbianletadepingsheng。

       1859nian6yue24ri,aotianshilujunyufaguo——sading(yidalideyigebangguo)lianjun30duowanrenkuzhanyuyidalibeibuyigejiaosuoerfulinuodechusuo,liangbianshangwangchenzhong。yinqueshaoyiliaojiuhu,4wanduosishangbingshibeipaoqizaijiangchangshang,xueliupiaochu,xueliupiaochu,canjuerenhuan。6yue25ri,zhengzaiouzhougedichuzhisijiashangwugoudangdehengli·dunanluguocidi,weizheiyicanxiangsuozhendong,dangjijuezejiangxiaowodeqijianpaiyibian,tourujiangchangjiuhu。tajieqiabendiyisuojiaotangzuoweiguqiejiuhusuo,bingyufajunjunyizongjianqudejieqia,kaishishumingaojunjunyifulu,danfuyizhishiming;tacedongbendidecunmindaochangjiuhu,bingshudaodaochangjiuhuderenbujiaqingshidiyizhitongtongdeshangbingyuan;tahaiweilinsideshangbingbiluxialinzhongjuebi,bingzanzhuyutamendeqinrenjieqia。

cicilvlishenshenzhendonglehengli·dunandezhiji。huidaorineiwajinhou,tadangjizhuanxiele《suoerfulinuohuixianglu》,yizhiguandongrendeshuohualunshulezaisuoerfulinuojiandaodeqingxing,bingyu1862nian11yuegongfeichushu。

hengli·dunanzai《suoerfulinuohuixianglu》zhongtichuliangxiangshouyaochangyi:

    ——zailieguoshelitianxiaxingdeziyuanshangbingjiuhugouzao,richangpingfanzhengkaijiuhujishulianxi,zhanshizengyuanrongxingyiliaoshiming;

    ——qiandingyifenguojitiaoyueciyujunshiyiwuzhiyuanheyiliaojigoujilieguodeziyuanshangbingjiuhugouzaoyizhonglideweizhi。

        tadechangyi,quderineiwade4weizhemingdeguomin——rineiwadazhongfulihuihuizhangmowaniai、dufuerjiangjun、apiyadafuhemonuowadafudezanmeihechengchi。1863nian2yue9ri,tamen5renzairuishirineiwabanbufabiaojianli“shangbingjiuhuguojiweiyuanhui”(youcheng“rineiwa5renweiyuanhui”),zheibiaojizhehongshizigoudangdejiangsheng。1875niangengmingwei“hongshiziguojiweiyuanhui”。

        hengli·dunanweiwanchengqibaofu,zai“shangbingjiuhuguojiweiyuanhui”jianlihou,chixujinlixiangouzhouyixieguodudejunzhuhedangjuhaoling,bingqudelechengchi。

        1863nian10yue26ri,rineiwaguojijihuizhaokai。16geguoduhe4gesijiagouzaode36mingdaibiao(junlaiziouzhouguodu)daochanglecicijihui。jihuiyou“shangbingjiuhuguojiweiyuanhui”diaojihezhangguan。10yue29ri,jihuijingyouguochengle10xiangjueze。juezedeshouyaoneirongchubaoluohengli·dunanzai《suoerfulinuohuixianglu》zhongtichudeliangxiangshouyaochangyiwai,haijuezejienabaidihongshizibeizhangzuoweijiuhuzhiyuandeyanhuxingbiaoji。1864nian3yue8ri,zaipulushiyudanmaizhijianbengfaderilesuyigezhanyizhong,peidaihongshizibeizhangdejiuhuzhiyuandiyicizaijiangchangshangchengxian,binggongjirenxingbanshi。

        1864nian8yue8rizhi22ri,zairineiwazhaokailejiaojijihui(zhengshichenghaowei“duizhonglihuazaizhandibanshiderongxingyiwujubudeguojijihui”)。8yue22ri,daochangjihuide12geguodudezhengshidaibiaoqiandinglediyigerineiwatiaoyue——《duigailiangzhandilujunshangzhejiyuzhirineiwatiaoyue》。tiaoyuegongyou10xiangtiaomu,baoluo1863nianrineiwaguojijihuijuezedeshouyaoneirong。tiaoyuehuadinglejiuhuche、rongxingbingyuanheyiwuzhiyuan,baoluoziyuanzhiyuanhesuijunmushiyingbeishiweizhonglierzaodaoyanhuhezunjing;tichu“renhebingshiyinshangbingerbunengchixuzhanyi,buguantashuyunayigeguodu,douyingciyushouliuheyizhi”deshouyaozhunsheng;banbubanfarongxingbingyuanheyiwuzhiyuanliyongbaidihongshizibiaojideqihaohebeizhang。tiaoyuezuichuhaolinglieguodangjuhezhunchashouzheiyitiaoyue。

        jinhou,hongshizigoudangzuoweiyigeguojixingdegoudang,zaiguojifadebaozhengxiaqitouchengzhangqilai,chengweixianjintianxiasandaguojigouzaozhiyi(jieheguoheguojiaoweihui)。

        hongshizigoudangyizhihuanraozhehengli·dunanzai《suoerfulinuohuixianglu》zhongtichudeliangxiangshouyaochangyideguijixiangqianchengzhang:

    ——zailieguoshelitianxiaxingdeziyuanshangbingjiuhugouzao(yanbianweixianjindeguoduhongshizihuihuohongyueyahui);

    ——qiandingyifenguojitiaoyueciyushangbingjiuhugouzaoyizhonglideweizhi(yanbianweixianjinyirineiwasitiaoyuejiqifujiayidingshuweijiaodianneirongdeguojirenxingfawenshu)。

       beirenmenzunweihongshizigoudangzhifudehengli·dunan,yinweitadeyuanjiangaojian,chengjileyixiang“chunjiedeyouzhuyurenleichengzhangdeqiji”,yinweitabaquanshujingshendoufangdaohongshizigoudangshangerpaohuanglexiaowodeqiji,naizhizai1867niantingye;1892nianhouchijiuzhuyuan,duguolezuichude18nian。

       1901nian,hengli·dunanhefaguorenfuleidelike·paxitongshiqudediyigenuobeierzhanyijiang,danyinweitadeankanghejingjideyuanyou,yibunengyuanchengguanguangqushoujiang,dantabiaoxianbajiangjinjuanjiguxiangdecibeiqiji。

       1910nian10yue30ri,hengli·dunanyimingwuhu。1948nian,hongshizihuixiehui(jicikedehongshizihuiyuhongyueyahuiguojijiehehui)lishihuijuezebameiyiniande5yue8ri(hengli·dunandanchen)dingweitianxiahongshiziri,bingqingqiulieguohongshizihuizaizheiyitiantingzhiqinghejiniangoudang。

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